Corns about the toes can be quite painful. These are the result of an excessive amount of force on that area of the toes and the skin just thickens up to protect itself, then becomes so thick that it is then painful. The sources of that higher pressure are many and might be due to a bony deformity, a claw toe or a bunion. A good podiatrist can easily remove a corn, however, if the pressure which caused the corn is still there, then it's probably going to keep coming back. For the best success long term, the main reason for the corn is required to be recognized and that cause taken away. Occasionally that could need surgery to improve the underlying bone or toe deformity. Other times that may require the wearing of cushioning for force off loading over the corn. Invariably, a vast improvement in the fit of footwear is the most effective methods for getting load off an area.
A great way to self treat these problems would be to remove the force. There are shielding pads that can be used like the toe foams. These are a soft foam made of polyurethane with a cloth backing. They are available in longer tubes which means you or the podiatrist can trim these to the desired size to place on the toe to cushion and protect it. Several of the toe foams come with a doubled thicker area on one side for lots more protection. They generally tend to be used more in the short to medium terms because they are soft, they are not that tough. Should they be beneficial and require to be used more in the longer term then they will need to get replaced frequently. Generally go over your options with the podiatrist to see what they suggest as the things they think are your best options in the long run.